What is Saffron

The scientific name of saffron is Crocus Sativus, a small perennial plant height of 10 to 30 cm. Of the bulb or stem base, narrow leaves grow. From the leaves, flowering out a three stigma lead.
Beautiful purple flowers with 6 petals that may be of some varieties of rose or purple colors. The flowers have stamens and a pistil 3 leading to the stigma of the three branches reddish- orange color.
The used part of the plant is the style and stigma that has three branches known as saffron flavored with aromatic odor which is a bit pungent. Geographical distribution of planting and harvesting saffron in Iran is Khorasan (Kashmar, qain, Birjand and underlying).

History of Saffron

There are several theories about the origins of saffron, but some historical evidence suggests that the primary habitat of saffron had been in Iran and the origin is Zagros regions.
Karkom is one of the oldest names being found in historical texts for saffron. According to the documented history, cultivation of saffron refers to the past 3000 years.
Ancient Persian used saffron to worship their gods in ritual ceremonies and the reason was the saffron fragrance and its brilliant yellow color.

Types of Saffron

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How to keep saffron?

Saffron should be kept away from light and moisture, in cool and dry place.

Cultivation Area

Saffron cultivation with economic goals between latitudes 30 and 40 degrees north of Morocco, Spain and Greece to India and Pakistan in the Kashmir region , where the continental climate with hot dry summer and mild winter temperatures and suitable for saffron it is common , but approximately 95% is produced in Iran , especially Khorasan.

Planting and Harvesting

Generally saffron grows in areas where posses temperate climate with relatively mild winters and hot summers. A Sandy and clay soil farm is required in addition to the previously fallow season. The best fertilizer for saffron is animal manure and infield should be flat and smooth.

From late June to early September is the best time to plant saffron, which for every hectare of land under cultivation, between 3 and 10 tons of saffron bulbs (depending on cultivation) is required.

Saffron should be watering in the form of flood irrigation and watering a field of saffron for the first time is in October. After drying off with precautions not to damage the onions, the land should be tilled in surface.

After drying off the land, by considering precautions not to harm the crocus, they till the ground level up.